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Jubilee

Leviticus 25

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) Summary

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) deals with kingdom economics. YHVH establishes the sabbatical and jubilee years. He also promises security if they keep this portion of the covenant. YHVH also lays out the land redemption guidelines. Also, interest rates and slavery for fellow countrymen are forbidden.  Also, the redemption of a countryman from a resident alien is also outlined. 

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) Outline

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) can be navigated in three possible ways. (1) The traditional verse division, (2) Jewish tradition of daily reading called Torah Portions, and (3) the Literary Layout per Jacob Milgrom. Click the caret below to navigate using the Torah Portions and Literary Layout.

Click to see Leviticus 25 Outline

Torah Portions:

  1. First Reading – vv. 1-13 – Parsha Behar
  2. Second Reading – vv. 14-18 – Parsha Behar
  3. Third Reading – vv. 19-24 – Parsha Behar
  4. Fourth Reading – vv. 25-28 – Parsha Behar
  5. Fifth Reading – vv. 29-38 – Parsha Behar
  6. Sixth Reading – vv. 39-46 – Parsha Behar
  7. Seventh Reading – vv.47-26.2 – Parsha Behar

Literary Layout:

  1. Introduction – v. 1
  2. The Sabbatical Year – vv. 2-7
  3. The Jubilee Year – vv. 8-22
  4. Redemption of Property: The Basic Principle – vv. 23,24
  5. The Three Stages of Destitution – vv. 25-55
    1. Stage One: Sold Land & Houses & Their Redemption – v. 25-34
    2. Stage Two: Lost Land – vv. 35-38
    3. Stage Three: “Slavery” – vv. 39-55

Leviticus 25 Structure:

Coming Soon

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) English Verses

Parsha Behar #32
~ Parsha On the Mount ~

FIRST READING

→ Introduction

1 And the LORD spoke unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying:

→ The Sabbatical Year

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the LORD.
3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the produce thereof.
4 But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath unto the LORD; thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard.
5 That which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap, and the grapes of thy undressed vine thou shalt not gather; it shall be a year of solemn rest for the land.
6 And the sabbath-produce of the land shall be for food for you: for thee, and for thy servant and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant and for the settler by thy side that sojourn with thee;
7 and for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof be for food.

→ The Jubilee Year

8 And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; and there shall be unto thee the days of seven sabbaths of years, even forty and nine years.
9 Then shalt thou make proclamation with the blast of the horn on the tenth day of the seventh month; in the day of atonement shall ye make proclamation with the horn throughout all your land.
10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof; it shall be a jubilee unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
11 A jubilee shall that fiftieth year be unto you; ye shall not sow, neither reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in it of the undressed vines.
12 For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy unto you; ye shall eat the increase thereof out of the field.
13 In this year of jubilee ye shall return every man unto his possession.

SECOND READING

14 And if thou sell aught unto thy neighbour, or buy of thy neighbour’s hand, ye shall not wrong one another.
15 According to the number of years after the jubilee thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, and according unto the number of years of the crops he shall sell unto thee.
16 According to the multitude of the years thou shalt increase the price thereof, and according to the fewness of the years thou shalt diminish the price of it; for the number of crops doth he sell unto thee.
17 And ye shall not wrong one another; but thou shalt fear thy God; for I am the LORD your God.
18 Wherefore ye shall do My statutes, and keep Mine ordinances and do them; and ye shall dwell in the land in safety.

THIRD READING

19 And the land shall yield her fruit, and ye shall eat until ye have enough, and dwell therein in safety.
20 And if ye shall say: ‘What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we may not sow, nor gather in our increase’;
21 then I will command My blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth produce for the three years.
22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and eat of the produce, the old store; until the ninth year, until her produce come in, ye shall eat the old store.

→ Redemption of Property: The Basic Principle

23 And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity; for the land is Mine; for ye are strangers and settlers with Me.
24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land.

FOURTH READING

→ The Three Stages of Destitution

Stage One: Sold Land & Houses & Their Redemption

25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and sell some of his possession, then shall his kinsman that is next unto him come, and shall redeem that which his brother hath sold.
26 And if a man have no one to redeem it, and he be waxen rich and find sufficient means to redeem it;
27 then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; and he shall return unto his possession.
28 But if he have not sufficient means to get it back for himself, then that which he hath sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubilee; and in the jubilee it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession.

FIFTH READING

29 And if a man sell a dwelling-house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; for a full year shall he have the right of redemption.
30 And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee.
31 But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be reckoned with the fields of the country; they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubilee.
32 But as for the cities of the Levites, the houses of the cities of their possession, the Levites shall have a perpetual right of redemption.
33 And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold in the city of his possession, shall go out in the jubilee; for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel.
34 But the fields of the open land about their cities may not be sold; for that is their perpetual possession.

Stage Two: Land Lost

35 And if thy brother be waxen poor, and his means fail with thee; then thou shalt uphold him: as a stranger and a settler shall he live with thee.
36 Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.
37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase.
38 I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be your God.

SIXTH READING
Stage Three: “Slavery”

39 And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant.
40 As a hired servant, and as a settler, he shall be with thee; he shall serve with thee unto the year of jubilee.
41 Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.
42 For they are My servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.
43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God.
44 And as for thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, whom thou mayest have: of the nations that are round about you, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.
45 Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them may ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they may be your possession.
46 And ye may make them an inheritance for your children after you, to hold for a possession: of them may ye take your bondmen for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel ye shall not rule, one over another, with rigour.

SEVENTH READING

47 And if a stranger who is a settler with thee be waxen rich, and thy brother be waxen poor beside him, and sell himself unto the stranger who is a settler with thee, or to the offshoot of a stranger’s family,
48 after that he is sold he may be redeemed; one of his brethren may redeem him;
49 or his uncle, or his uncle’s son, may redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin unto him of his family may redeem him; or if he be waxen rich, he may redeem himself.
50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he sold himself to him unto the year of jubilee; and the price of his sale shall be according unto the number of years; according to the time of a hired servant shall he be with him.
51 If there be yet many years, according unto them he shall give back the price of his redemption out of the money that he was bought for.
52 And if there remain but few years unto the year of jubilee, then he shall reckon with him; according unto his years shall he give back the price of his redemption.
53 As a servant hired year by year shall he be with him; he shall not rule with rigour over him in thy sight.
54 And if he be not redeemed by any of these means, then he shall go out in the year of jubilee, he, and his children with him.
55 For unto Me the children of Israel are servants; they are My servants whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.

Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) English Verses

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Leviticus ChaptersLeviticus 26 ResourcesCopyright

WSB Links

  1. Parsha Behar – The Parsha page containing Stats, Readings, and additional links.
  2. Sefer Vayikra- Leviticus 25 – The Hebrew text for this chapter.
  3.  Leviticus 25 (Vayikra) Interlinear – Coming Soon

Online Resources

  1. Bible Hub Interlinear Leviticus 25

Offline Resources

Chumash

  1. The Schocken Bible: Volume 1, The Five Books of Moses | Schocken Books | Everett Fox – My Hebrew teacher, Yoel HaLevi, has stated this is the best English translation he has heard. It is a first in a three-volume series translated by rabbis for Jewish English readers.
  2. The Steinsaltz Humash | Koren Publishers | Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz – The Late Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz was renowned for his Koren Talmud. He has been called the modern Rashi.
  3. The Pentateuch & Haftorahs | The Soncino Press | Dr. J.H. Hertz – The Late Chief Rabbi of the British Empire was renowned for his writings and teachings. Many consider this a must have for any personal library. In the Preface Dr. Hertz calls this “a People’s Commentary”.
  4. The Living Torah | Maznaim Publishing | Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan – Rabbi Kaplan is well known for working with texts from Kabbalah. In the Translator’s Introduction he writes, “It (this book) is meant to be a book that can be given to a boy on the day of his Bar Mitzvah, and yet remain the subject of lifelong study.”

Commentaries

  1. Leviticus: A Book of Ritual and Ethics: Continental Commentaries| Fortress Press | Professor Joseph Milgrom – He is the leading authority on the book of Leviticus. This is the scaled down version of his three-volume work in the Archor Bible Series.
  2. The JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus | Jewish Publication Society | Dr. Baruch A. Levine – This is a semi-scholarly work that is required reading for anyone wanting to study the book of Leviticus.
  3. Covenant & Conversation Commentary | Schocken Books | Rabbi Jonathan Sacks – The Late Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks’ last published commentary on the Torah.
  4. The Parsha with Rabbi Juravel: Sefer Vayikra | MC Publications | Rabbi M. Feinzeig – Rabbi Juravel is well-known for his teachings for children. This series were created from his famous children’s teachings. In my opinion, everyone new to Jewish studies should start their studies here.

Hebrew Resources

  1. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon | Hendrickson Pub. | Francis Brown – One of the most used Hebrew and English Lexicons among serious Bible students.
The Holy Scriptures
According to the Masoretic Text
The Jewish Publication Society translation
[1917] – Public Domain

Parsha Behar

Parsha Behar

Parsha behar is the thrirty-second reading in the annual cycle.  Behar is translated as “on the mount“. I found four different spellings – “Behar”, “BeHar”, “Be-har”, or “B’har”. 

Parsha Behar Summary

Parsha Behar continues the theme of scared time. It discusses the do’s and don’ts of the sabbatical year (Shemita) and the Jubilee year (Yovel). Shemita and Yovel have very specific details about the land, debts, and indentured servants.

Bahar is the fifth Hebrew word in the text. It is highlighted in red. You can see it and additional details about this Torah portion below.