Skip to content

Scripture Text

Main Text of the Scriptures

Name: Leviticus is the third book of the English Bible and it’s base Hebrew text corresponds to the third book of Torah called Vayikra וַיִּקְרָא . The first appearance of this Hebrew word is in Genesis 1.5. Vayikra can be spelled four different ways; (1) Vayikra (2) Va Yikra (3) Va-yika (4) Wayyiqra.

The first time “Leviticus” is used to refer to this text was by the seventy-two Jewish translators of the Greek Septuagint (LXX). Later Jerome, using the Septuagint, used this name in his Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible. William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale depended heavily upon the Latin Vulgate and Luther’s German translations; so continued the tradition of calling this text “Leviticus”. Vayikra is translated as “and called“.

The Rabbis refer to the third book of Torah as “Vayikra” וַיִּקְרָא because it is the first word in the text. The oldest name for this book is תורת כהנים The Law of the Priests1.

Notes:

  1. ‘Pentateuch & Haftorahs Hebrew Text English Translation & Commentary”, Dr. JH Hertz, Editor. London. Soncino Press. 1994, PG. 409

Genesis 6 (Bereshit) Outline

This first two divisions (vv.1-4 & vv. 5-8 ) of chapter 6 are connected to chapter 5. They are the final two paragraphs in “The Book of the History of Adam.” The previous introduction of Noah in 5.32 is being developed in verse 8. It is transitioning us to the next major story.
Beginning at verse 9 we have a new act — “The Flood”. Everything is about to be destroyed and the world will be recreated – this is presented as a new creation.

vv.1-4 Sons of God and the Daughters of Men
vv.5-8 Punishment for the Generation of the Flood; Grace for Noah
vv.9-12 The Corruption of All Flesh and the Righteousness of the Good Man
vv.13-22 Noah told about the Coming Doom and Instructed to Make the Ark

Genesis 5 (Bereshit) Outline

Traditionally, Genesis (Bereshit) 5 is considered to be the first ten generations of the earth’s history. According to Rabbi Cassuto, Genesis (Bereshet) 5 begins the fourth section of Genesis called “The Book of the History of Adam” and it continues to Genesis (Bereshet) 6.8.

vv.1-5 Adam – lives 930 years vv.6-8 Seth – lives 912 years vv.9-11 Enosh – lives 905 years vv.12-14 Kenan – lives 910 years vv.15-17 Mahalalel – lives 829 years vv.18-20 Jared – lives 962 years vv.21-24 Enoch – lives 365 years vv.25-27 Methuselah – lives 969 years vv.28-31 Lamech – lives 777 years vv.32 Noah – 500 years old when he has sons

Genesis 4 (Bereshit) Outline

Now we begin the third section of Genesis. Bereshit 6 is “The Story of Cain and Abel” This short section begins and ends with the birthing of children. In between them are revealed the occupations of the first two children. The murder of one by the other and G-d’s judgment against the murderer. From there, we see the continuous downward trend of the murderer’s family. However, the section ends with the birth of the righteous Seth and Enosh.

vv.1-2 The Birth & Occupations of Cain and Able
vv.3-8 The Murder of Able
vv.9-16 The Murder Sentence
vv.17-22 The Descendants of Cain
vv.23-24 Lamech’s Song
vv.25-26 The Birth of Seth and Enosh

Genesis 3 (Bereshit) Outline

Genesis 3 (Bereshet) conutinues “The Story of the Garden of Eden. According to Cassuto, in the Hebrew text this is a continuation of chapter 2.

vv.1-7 Adam’s Sin: Talking serpent questions the woman about food. She desired the promised wisdom to know good and evil. She takes the fruit ate it and gave it to Adam. He eats and both of their eyes are opened to good and evil. They saw their nakedness and sewes fig leaves together and covered themselves. vv.8-21 The Judgment and the Sentence: HaShem comes and questions Adam. He blames both God and the woman. He speak to the woman and she blames the serpent. HaShem begins to hand down His judgment upon the serpent, than the woman, and finally the man. v.22-24 The Expulsion: HaShem begins by saying that man(kind) has become like God knowing good and evil. To prevent man from eatting from The Tree of Life, he expelled him from the garden and places angels with rotating flaming swords to protect The Tree.

Genesis 2 (Bereshit) Outline

The Story of Creation continues all the way to the third verse. Now, we venture into, “The story of the Garden of Eden”. Verse four is our transition verse, in verse five we are introduced to the Garden of Eden.

According to Rabbi Cassuto, the primary purpose for the story of the Garden of Eden is, “to explain how it is that in the Lord’s world, the world of the good and beneficent God, evil should exist and man should endure pain and troubles and calaminties.

vv.1-3 Seventh Day The Day of rest is created. v.4 Transitional Verse These are the generations of the heavens and earth. vv.5-7 Creation of Man Before the creation of man a mist waters the earth. Man is created. vv.8-14 The Planting of the Garden of Eden The garden is planted east of Eden and place man there. Tree of life and The Tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil are introduced. A river splitting into four is discussed. vv.15-17 Man and the Garden Man given responsibility and warned about the Tree of knowledge of Good and Evil. vv.18-25 Creation of Woman HaShem discusses the condition of the man. Man take to his task of naming animals. Woman is created.

Genesis 1 (Bereshit) Outline

Rabbi Umberto Cassuto calls Genesis 1.1-2.3 “The Story of Creation”.  He says, “The purpose of the Torah in the section is to teach us that the whole world and all that it contains were created by the word of the One God, according to His will, which operates without restrant.

The Story of Creation section consists of seven paragraphs and our text below are divided into this layout. In his commentary, he connects the first three verses of chapter 2 to chapter 1. Therfore, Genesis 1 only contains six of those paragraphs and the introductory verse is not counted.

v.1 Introductory verse An introductory statement in this epic creation poem. vv.2-5 one day Light is called out from darkness. vv.6-8 second day The sea and heaven. vv.9-13 third day The creation of land, seas, and plant life. vv.14-19 fourth day Creation of light in the heavens. vv20-23 fifth day creation of the water creatures and flying animals. vv.24-31 sixth day creation of land (domesticated?) animals, wild animals and man. G-d gives food to the man.

Genesis (Bereshit) Cover

Book Name: Genesis is the first book of the English Bible and it’s base Hebrew text corresponds to the first book of Torah called Bereshit בְּרֵאשִׁית. Bereshit can be said and spelled eight different ways – Bereshit, Bereishit, Bereshis, Bereishis, B’reshith, Beresh’t, Beresheet, or Bereishees. All of them are correct.

The first time “Genesis” is used to refer to this text was by the seventy-two Jewish translators of the Greek Septuagint (LXX). Later Jerome, using the Septuagint, used this name in his Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible.  William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale depended heavily upon the Latin Vulgate and Luther’s German translations; so continued the tradition of calling this text “Genesis”.  I am sure you know Genesis means “beginning” or “origin

The Rabbis refer to the first book of Torah as “Bereshit” בְּרֵאשִׁית because it is the first word in the text. Bereshit בְּרֵאשִׁית has three meanings — “in the beginning“, “at the start“, or “at the head (of all things, in this case).” The translation “in the beginning” has become the most popular way to translate Bereshit and from what I’ve read all other translations are strongly opposed. In the world of translation, this has become a very political issue.

In Jewish tradition, there are three additional names used when referring the text of the first book of Torah. They are Sefer Bereshit which may mean book of beginnings, Sefer Rishon meaning the First Book, and Sefer Beri’at Ha’olam which translates to the Book of the Creation of the world. The oldest known reference to this text by the Rabbis is Sefer Maseh Bereshith, Book of Creation.

Deuteronomy 8 Outline:

Deuteronomy 8 Verses

KJV
1 All the commandments which I command thee this day shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers.

2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart, whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no.

3 And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that he might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live 1.

4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years.

5 Thou shalt also consider in thine heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the Lord thy God chasteneth thee.

6 Therefore thou shalt keep the commandments of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, and to fear him.

7 For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills;

8 A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey 2;

9 A land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass 3.

10 When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the Lord thy God 4 for the good land which he hath given thee .

11 Beware that thou forget not the Lord thy God, in not keeping his commandments, and his judgments, and his statutes, which I command thee this day:

12 Lest when thou hast eaten and art full, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein;

13 And when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied;

14 Then thine heart be lifted up, and thou forget the Lord thy God, which brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage;

15 Who led thee through that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought, where there was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint;

16 Who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that he might humble thee, and that he might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end;

17 And thou say in thine heart, My power and the might of mine hand hath gotten me this wealth.

18 But thou shalt remember the Lord thy God: for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth, that he may establish his covenant which he sware unto thy fathers, as it is this day 5.

19 And it shall be, if thou do at all forget the Lord thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish.

20 As the nations which the Lord destroyeth before your face, so shall ye perish; because ye would not be obedient unto the voice of the Lord your God.
1917 Tanakh
1 All the commandment which I command thee this day shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply, and go in and possess the land which the LORD swore unto your fathers. 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no. 3 And He afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every thing that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live. 4 Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years. 5 And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee. 6 And thou shalt keep the commandments of the LORD thy God, to walk in His ways, and to fear Him. 7 For the LORD thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths, springing forth in valleys and hills; 8 a land of wheat and barley, and vines and fig-trees and pomegranates; a land of olive-trees and honey; 9 a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. 10 And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee. 11 Beware lest thou forget the LORD thy God, in not keeping His commandments, and His ordinances, and His statutes, which I command thee this day; 12 lest when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein; 13 and when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is multiplied, and all that thou hast is multiplied; 14 then thy heart be lifted up, and thou forget the LORD thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; 15 who led thee through the great and dreadful wilderness, wherein were serpents, fiery serpents, and scorpions, and thirsty ground where was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint; 16 who fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end; 17 and thou say in thy heart: ‘My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth.’ 18 But thou shalt remember the LORD thy God, for it is He that giveth thee power to get wealth, that He may establish His covenant which He swore unto thy fathers, as it is this day.

19 And it shall be, if thou shalt forget the LORD thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I forewarn you this day that ye shall surely perish. 20 As the nations that the LORD maketh to perish before you, so shall ye perish; because ye would not hearken unto the voice of the LORD your God.

CopyrightDt 8 VersesDt. Chapters
KJV – Public Domain
1917 JPS – Public Domain

Notes:

  1. Deuteronomy 8:3 (Devarim)man doth not live by bread only, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live – Mt. 4:4; Lu. 4:4 quoted by Yeshua.
  2. Deuteronomy 8:8 (Devarim)A land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey – These are called the seven species of the Promise Land – even today. honey – is not referring to bee honey but rather the other major crop in Israel date-honey. According to Rashi, “Honey” is used to refer not only the bees’ honey, but every manner of very sweet food i.e. dates.” When dates and these types of fruits are left in the sun they will ooze honey-like juices.
  3. Deuteronomy 8:9 (Devarim) stones are iron…brass – Israel is a country that is full of hard rocks that are perfect for building. The Timna Valley is still producing copper today.
  4. Deuteronomy 8:10 (Devarim)When thou hast eaten and art full, then thou shalt bless the Lord thy God for the good land which he hath given thee – This is the [takanot ?] commandment to recite a Blessing After the meal. (Berachos 48b)
  5. Deuteronomy 8:18 (Devarim) – Two scriptural examples where two emperors declared that they built their empires. Isaiah 10:13,14 (2 King 18-25) Assyrian king Sennacherib, Daniel 4:27-31 Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar
Deuteronomy 3

Deuteronomy 3 Outline: (vv 1-7) Travels through Bashan, defeat of Og (vv 8-10) Israel defeats two kings of the Amorites (v 11) Og king of Bashan iron bed size (v 12) Land given to Reubenites and to the Gadites (vv 13-15) Land given to half-tribe of Manasseh (vv 16-17) Borders for Reubenites and unto the Gadites (vv 18-20) Moshe’s commands to the Reubenites, Gadites, and half-tribe of Manasseh (vv 21-22) Moshe’s commands to Joshua ~ Parshah Va-etchanan ~ (vv 23-26) Moshe beseeches G-d to allow him into the land (vv 27-29) HaShem’s answer

Deuteronomy 3 Verses
KJV
1 Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei 1.

2 And the Lord said unto me, Fear him not: for I will deliver him, and all his people, and his land, into thy hand; and thou shalt do unto him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon.

3 So the Lord our God delivered into our hands Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people: and we smote him until none was left to him remaining.

4 And we took all his cities at that time, there was not a city which we took not from them, threescore cities, all the region of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan.

5 All these cities were fenced with high walls, gates, and bars; beside unwalled towns a great many.

6 And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of Heshbon, utterly destroying the men, women, and children, of every city.

7 But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities, we took for a prey to ourselves.

8 And we took at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites the land that was on this side Jordan, from the river of Arnon unto mount Hermon;

9 (Which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion; and the Amorites call it Shenir;)

10 All the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, unto Salchah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.

11 For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.

12 And this land, which we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites.

13 And the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, being the kingdom of Og, gave I unto the half tribe of Manasseh; all the region of Argob, with all Bashan, which was called the land of giants.

14 Jair the son of Manasseh took all the country of Argob unto the coasts of Geshuri and Maachathi; and called them after his own name, Bashanhavothjair, unto this day.

15 And I gave Gilead unto Machir.

16 And unto the Reubenites and unto the Gadites I gave from Gilead even unto the river Arnon half the valley, and the border even unto the river Jabbok, which is the border of the children of Ammon;

17 The plain also, and Jordan, and the coast thereof, from Chinnereth even unto the sea of the plain, even the salt sea, under Ashdothpisgah eastward.

18 And I commanded you at that time, saying, The Lord your God hath given you this land to possess it: ye shall pass over armed before your brethren the children of Israel, all that are meet for the war. 2


19 But your wives, and your little ones, and your cattle, (for I know that ye have much cattle,) shall abide in your cities which I have given you;

20 Until the Lord have given rest unto your brethren, as well as unto you, and until they also possess the land which the Lord your God hath given them beyond Jordan: and then shall ye return every man unto his possession, which I have given you.

21 And I commanded Joshua 3 at that time, saying, Thine eyes have seen all that the Lord your God hath done unto these two kings: so shall the Lord do unto all the kingdoms whither thou passest.

22 Ye shall not fear them: for the Lord your God he shall fight for you.

1917 Tanakh
1 Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan; and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, unto battle at Edrei. 2 And the LORD said unto me: ‘Fear him not; for I have delivered him, and all his people, and his land, into thy hand; and thou shalt do unto him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon.’ 3 So the LORD our God delivered into our hand Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people; and we smote him until none was left to him remaining. 4 And we took all his cities at that time; there was not a city which we took not from them; threescore cities, all the region of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 5 All these were fortified cities, with high walls, gates, and bars; beside the unwalled towns a great many. 6 And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of Heshbon, utterly destroying every city, the men, and the women, and the little ones. 7 But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities, we took for a prey unto ourselves.

8 And we took the land at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites that were beyond the Jordan, from the valley of Arnon unto mount Hermon— 9which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion, and the Amorites call it Senir— 10 all the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, unto Salcah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.— 11 For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of the Rephaim; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.— 12 And this land we took in possession at that time; from Aroer, which is by the valley of Arnon, and half the hill-country of Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites; 13 and the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, the kingdom of Og, gave I unto the half-tribe of Manasseh; all the region of Argob—all that Bashan is called the land of Rephaim. 14 Jair the son of Manasseh took all the region of Argob, unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and called them, even Bashan, after his own name, Havvoth-jair, unto this day.— 15 And I gave Gilead unto Machir. 16 And unto the Reubenites and unto the Gadites I gave from Gilead even unto the valley of Arnon, the middle of the valley for a border; even unto the river Jabbok, which is the border of the children of Ammon; 17 the Arabah also, the Jordan being the border thereof, from Chinnereth even unto the sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, under the slopes of Pisgah eastward.

18 And I commanded you at that time, saying: ‘The LORD your God hath given you this land to possess it; ye shall pass over armed before your brethren the children of Israel, all the men of valour. 19 But your wives, and your little ones, and your cattle—I know that ye have much cattle—shall abide in your cities which I have given you; 20 until the LORD give rest unto your brethren, as unto you, and they also possess the land which the LORD your God giveth them beyond the Jordan; then shall ye return every man unto his possession, which I have given you. 21 And I commanded Joshua at that time, saying: ‘Thine eyes have seen all that the LORD your God hath done unto these two kings; so shall the LORD do unto all the kingdoms whither thou goest over. 22 Ye shall not fear them; for the LORD your God, He it is that fighteth for you.’

Deuteronomy 3 Devarim:
Parshah Va-etchanan 4 Begins

Deuteronomy 3

KJV
23 And I besought the Lord at that time, saying,

24 O Lord God, thou hast begun to shew thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand: for what God is there in heaven or in earth, that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might?

25 I pray thee, let me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon.

26 But the Lord was wroth with me for your sakes, and would not hear me: and the Lord said unto me, Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto me of this matter.

27 Get thee up into the top of Pisgah, and lift up thine eyes westward, and northward, and southward, and eastward, and behold it with thine eyes: for thou shalt not go over this Jordan.

28 But charge Joshua, and encourage him, and strengthen him: for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou shalt see.

29 So we abode in the valley over against Bethpeor.
1917 Tanakh
23 And I besought the LORD at that time, saying:
24 ‘O Lord GOD, Thou hast begun to show Thy servant Thy greatness, and Thy strong hand; for what god is there in heaven or on earth, that can do according to Thy works, and according to Thy mighty acts? 25 Let me go over, I pray Thee, and see the good land that is beyond the Jordan, that goodly hill-country, and Lebanon.’ 26 But the LORD was wroth with me for your sakes, and hearkened not unto me; and the LORD said unto me: ‘Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto Me of this matter. 27 Get thee up into the top of Pisgah, and lift up thine eyes westward, and northward, and southward, and eastward, and behold with thine eyes; for thou shalt not go over this Jordan. 28 But charge Joshua, and encourage him, and strengthen him; for he shall go over before this people, and he shall cause them to inherit the land which thou shalt see.’ 29 So we abode in the valley over against Beth-peor.

CopyrightDt 3 VersesDt. Chapters

Notes:

  1. Deuteronomy 3:1 – Numbers 21:33-35 The original story.
  2. Deuteronomy 3:18-20 – Numbers 32:20-33 the original conditions for the land.
  3. Deuteronomy 3:21-22Numbers 27:15; Deuteronomy 31:7,14; 34:9; Joshua 1
  4. Parshah Va-etchanan – According to Rabbi Menachem Schneerson this parshah parallels the second book of Torah – Exodus for the next generation.”In a parallel manner, Parshah Va-etchanan describes the spiritual uniqueness of the new generation, restates the covenant with G-d on their level (10 Commandments), and transforms the imperative to make the worls G-d’s home into the basic, central statement of Judaism: the Shema.”