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Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim)

Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) Summary

Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) contains about eleven divisions of positive and negative instructions. It begins with four groups of people who are forbidden to marry Israelites – the mutilated, bastard, Ammonites and Moabites. Then two groups are allowed to marry into Israel – Edomites and Egyptians.

We move into the military camp of Israel and how to keep it holy and the protection of slaves. Male and female prostitution is forbidden.

Next, we move into financial matters. Interest rates not charged to Israelites but may be charged to gentiles. Making and paying vows is addressed.

Finally, the workers are permitted to eat from vineyards and grains fields. However, they must not harvest for themselves either by placing grapes into a receptacle or using a sickle to the standing stalks of grain.

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Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) Outline

Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) can be navigated in three possible ways. (1) Jewish tradition of daily reading called Torah Portions. (2) Rabbi Johnathan Sacks proposed treaty (covenant) layout and finally (3) theme based verses.

Click to see Deuteronomy 23 Links

Torah Portions:

  1. ThirdReading v.1 – continued from chapter 22
  2. Fourth Reading v.8
  3. Fifth Reading v.25

Treaty (Covenant):

  1. Stipulations – Specific Provision: The details of the law, with special reference to how they are to be carried out by the people as a whole in the Land of Israel.

Verses Topics:

  1. v.1 – Mutilated Genitals
  2. v.2 – Bastard sons and marriage to an Israelite
  3. vv.3-6 – Ammonites and Moabites (Forbidden Marriage and Peace Treaties)
  4. vv. 7,8 – Edomite and Egyptian (Permitted Marriage)
  5. vv.9-14 – Keeping Military Camps Holy
  6. vv.15,16 – Protecting Slaves
  7. vv.17,18 – Male & Female Prostitution Forbidden. Prostitution wages forbidden to pay vows
  8. vv.19,20 – Interest Rates Forbidden for Israelites but Permitted for Gentiles
  9. vv.21-23 – Honoring your Vows
  10. v.24 – Eating Neighbors Grapes permitted but Harvesting Grapes is forbidden
  11. v.25 – Eating Neighbors Grain permitted but Harvesting Grain is forbidden

Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) Verses

Parsha Ki Tetez #49
~ When You Go Out ~

THIRD READING

→ Stipulations – Specific Provision:

1 (23:2)* He that is crushed or maimed in his privy parts shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD. 2 (23:3) A bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the assembly of the LORD.  3 (23:4) An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever; 4 (23:5) because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee. 5 (23:6) Nevertheless the LORD thy God would not hearken unto Balaam; but the LORD thy God turned the curse into a blessing unto thee, because the LORD thy God loved thee.
6 (23:7) Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever.

Notes on Deuteronomy 23:1-4

Deuteronomy 23:1

* Verse 1 in the English Text is verse 2 in the Hebrew Text. Verses 1,2,3 or the four groups of people (maimed, bastard, Ammonite or Moabite) are connected as they are forbidden to “enter into the assembly of the Lord.”

FOURTH READING

7 (23:8) Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land.
8 (23:9) The children of the third generation that are born unto them may enter into the assembly of the LORD.

9 (23:10) When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing. 10 (23:11) If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp. 11 (23:12) But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp.
12 (23:13) Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad. 13 (23:14) And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee.
14 (23:15) For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee.

15 (23:16)Thou shalt not deliver unto his master a bondman that is escaped from his master unto thee; 16 (23:17) he shall dwell with thee, in the midst of thee, in the place which he shall choose within one of thy gates, where it liketh him best; thou shalt not wrong him.

17 (23:18) There shall be no harlot of the daughters of Israel, neither shall there be a sodomite of the sons of Israel.
18 (23:19) Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow; for even both these are an abomination unto the LORD thy God.

19 (23:20) Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing that is lent upon interest. 20 (23:21) Unto a foreigner thou mayest lend upon interest; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon interest; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all that thou puttest thy hand unto, in the land whither thou goest in to possess it.

21 (23:22) When thou shalt vow a vow unto the LORD thy God, thou shalt not be slack to pay it; for the LORD thy God will surely require it of thee; and it will be sin in thee.
22 (23:23) But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee.
23 (23:24) That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth.

FIFTH READING

24 (23:25) When thou comest into thy neighbour’s vineyard, then thou mayest eat grapes until thou have enough at thine own pleasure; but thou shalt not put any in thy vessel.

25 (23:26) When thou comest into thy neighbour’s standing corn, then thou mayest pluck ears with thy hand; but thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour’s standing corn.

Deuteronomy 23 (Devarim) Verses

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כג Chapter 23

א לֹֽא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִֽיו: ס ב לֹֽא־יָבֹא פְצֽוּעַ־דַּכָּה וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹֽה: ס ג לֹֽא־יָבֹא מַמְזֵר בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹֽא־יָבֹא לוֹ בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹֽה: ס ד לֹֽא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמֽוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹֽא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹה עַד־עוֹלָֽם: ה עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹֽא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵֽאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַֽאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַֽהֲרַיִם לְקַֽלְלֶֽךָּ: ו וְלֹֽא־אָבָה יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַֽ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיַּֽהֲפֹךְ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְּךָ אֶת־הַקְּלָלָה לִבְרָכָה כִּי אֲהֵֽבְךָ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶֽיךָ: ז לֹֽא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹֽבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָֽם: ס [רביעי] ח לֹֽא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹֽא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצֽוֹ: ט בָּנִים אֲשֶׁר־יִוָּֽלְדוּ לָהֶם דּוֹר שְׁלִישִׁי יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָֹֽה: ס י כִּֽי־תֵצֵא מַֽחֲנֶה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָֽע: יא כִּי־יִֽהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַֽמַּֽחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַֽמַּֽחֲנֶֽה: יב וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַֽמַּֽחֲנֶֽה: יג וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַֽמַּֽחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חֽוּץ: יד וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָֽפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵֽאָתֶֽךָ: טו כִּי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ ׀ בְּקֶרֶב מַֽחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּֽילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹֽיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַֽחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹֽא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַֽחֲרֶֽיךָ: ס טז לֹֽא־תַסְגִּיר עֶבֶד אֶל־אֲדֹנָיו אֲשֶׁר־יִנָּצֵל אֵלֶיךָ מֵעִם אֲדֹנָֽיו: יז עִמְּךָ יֵשֵׁב בְּקִרְבְּךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ בַּטּוֹב לוֹ לֹא תּוֹנֶֽנּוּ: ס יח לֹא־תִֽהְיֶה קְדֵשָׁה מִבְּנוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־יִֽהְיֶה קָדֵשׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵֽל: יט לֹֽא־תָבִיא אֶתְנַן זוֹנָה וּמְחִיר כֶּלֶב בֵּית יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְכָל־נֶדֶר כִּי תֽוֹעֲבַת יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶֽם: ס כ לֹֽא־תַשִּׁיךְ לְאָחִיךָ נֶשֶׁךְ כֶּסֶף נֶשֶׁךְ אֹכֶל נֶשֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִשָּֽׁךְ: כא לַנָּכְרִי תַשִּׁיךְ וּלְאָחִיךָ לֹא תַשִּׁיךְ לְמַעַן יְבָֽרֶכְךָ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּֽהּ: ס כב כִּֽי־תִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַֽיהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר לְשַׁלְּמוֹ כִּֽי־דָרֹשׁ יִדְרְשֶׁנּוּ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵֽעִמָּךְ וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵֽטְא: כג וְכִי תֶחְדַּל לִנְדֹּר לֹא־יִֽהְיֶה בְךָ חֵֽטְא: כד מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּֽאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַֽיהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִֽיךָ: ס [חמישי] כה כִּי תָבֹא בְּכֶרֶם רֵעֶךָ וְאָֽכַלְתָּ עֲנָבִים כְּנַפְשְׁךָ שָׂבְעֶךָ וְאֶֽל־כֶּלְיְךָ לֹא תִתֵּֽן: ס כו כִּי תָבֹא בְּקָמַת רֵעֶךָ וְקָֽטַפְתָּ מְלִילֹת בְּיָדֶךָ וְחֶרְמֵשׁ לֹא תָנִיף עַל קָמַת רֵעֶֽךָ: ס

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Covenant & Conversation Commentary – The Late Chief Rabbi Johnanath Sacks’ last published commentary on the Torah.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon – One of the most used Hebrew and English Lexicons among serious Bible students.

Pentateuch & Haftorahs, By. Dr. J.H. Hertz – The Late Chief Rabbi of the British Empire was renowned for his writings and teaches. By many he is considered a must read. In the Preface Dr. Hertz calls this “a People’s Commentary”.

The Holy Scriptures
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The Jewish Publication Society translation
[1917] – Public Domain