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Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim)

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) Summary

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) discusses five things: the unsolved murder, female captives, first-born inheartance, the rebellious son, hanging and burial. 

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Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) Outline

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) can be navigated in three possible ways. (1) Jewish tradition of daily reading called Torah Portions. (2) Rabbi Johnathan Sacks proposed treaty (covenant) layout and finally (3) theme based verses.

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Torah Portions:

  1. Seventh Reading vv. 1 – 9 – Continued from chapter 20
  2. First Reading vv. 10 -21 – Parsha Ki Thetze
  3. Second Reading vv 22 -22 – Parsha Ki Thetze

Treaty (Covenant):

  1. Stipulations – Specific Provision: The details of the law, with special reference to how they are to be carried out by the people as a whole in the Land of Israel.

Verses Topics:

  1. vv 1-5 – SOMETHING

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) Verses

Parsha Shoftim #48
~ Judges~

SEVENTH READING CON’T

→ Stipulations – Specific Provision:

1 If one be found slain in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who hath smitten him; 2 then thy elders and thy judges shall come forth, and they shall measure unto the cities which are round about him that is slain.

Notes on Deuteronomy 21:1

Deuteronomy 21:1

*

3 And it shall be, that the city which is nearest unto the slain man, even the elders of that city shall take a heifer of the herd, which hath not been wrought with, and which hath not drawn in the yoke. 4 And the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer unto a rough valley, which may neither be plowed nor sown, and shall break the heifer’s neck there in the valley.

5 And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near – for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be. 6 And all the elders of that city, who are nearest unto the slain man, shall wash their hands over the heifer whose neck was broken in the valley.

7 And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it.

8 Forgive, O LORD, Thy people Israel, whom Thou hast redeemed, and suffer not innocent blood to remain in the midst of Thy people Israel.’ And the blood shall be forgiven them. 9 So shalt thou put away the innocent blood from the midst of thee, when thou shalt do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD.

Parsha Ki Tetze #49
~ When You Go ~

FIRST READING

10 When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive, 11 and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife;

12 then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; 13 and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. 14 And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go* whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her.

Notes on Deuteronomy 21:14

Deuteronomy 21:14

* then thou shalt let her go וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ – The root word is שָׁלַח shalach – can and is translated as divorce. Divorce literality means “to send away from one’s house”.

15 If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the first-born son be hers that was hated; 16 then it shall be, in the day that he causeth his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved the first-born before the son of the hated, who is the first-born;

17 but he shall acknowledge the first-born, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath; for he is the first-fruits of his strength, the right of the first-born is his.

18 If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, that will not hearken to the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and though they chasten him, will not hearken unto them; 19 then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place; 20 and they shall say unto the elders of his city: ‘This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he doth not hearken to our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard.’

21 And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.

SECOND READING

22 And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree; 23 his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) Verses

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דברים  מח 48

Deuteronomy 21 (Devarim) ברים Hebrew Verses

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שופטים מח 48

כא Chapter 21

א כִּֽי־יִמָּצֵא חָלָל בָּֽאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לְרִשְׁתָּהּ נֹפֵל בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא נוֹדַע מִי הִכָּֽהוּ: ב וְיָֽצְאוּ זְקֵנֶיךָ וְשֹֽׁפְטֶיךָ וּמָֽדְדוּ אֶל־הֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹת הֶֽחָלָֽל: ג וְהָיָה הָעִיר הַקְּרֹבָה אֶל־הֶֽחָלָל וְלָֽקְחוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא עֶגְלַת בָּקָר אֲשֶׁר לֹֽא־עֻבַּד בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־מָֽשְׁכָה בְּעֹֽל: ד וְהוֹרִדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא אֶת־הָֽעֶגְלָה אֶל־נַחַל אֵיתָן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵֽעָבֵד בּוֹ וְלֹא יִזָּרֵעַ וְעָֽרְפוּ־שָׁם אֶת־הָֽעֶגְלָה בַּנָּֽחַל: ה וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּֽהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָֹה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִֽהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָֽגַע: ו וְכֹל זִקְנֵי הָעִיר הַהִוא הַקְּרֹבִים אֶל־הֶֽחָלָל יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־הָֽעֶגְלָה הָֽעֲרוּפָה בַנָּֽחַל: [מפטיר] ז וְעָנוּ וְאָֽמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שָֽׁפְכֻה [שָֽׁפְכוּ] אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאֽוּ: ח כַּפֵּר לְעַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־פָּדִיתָ יְהֹוָה וְאַל־תִּתֵּן דָּם נָקִי בְּקֶרֶב עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּֽם: ט וְאַתָּה תְּבַעֵר הַדָּם הַנָּקִי מִקִּרְבֶּךָ כִּי־תַֽעֲשֶׂה הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָֹֽה: ס ס ס [פרשת כי תצא] י כִּֽי־תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל־אֹֽיְבֶיךָ וּנְתָנוֹ יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיֽוֹ: יא וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָֽשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָֽקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּֽׁה: יב וַֽהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָֽשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶֽיהָ: יג וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵֽעָלֶיהָ וְיָֽשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָֽכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּֽבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָֽיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּֽׁה: יד וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹֽא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹֽא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָֽהּ: ס טו כִּי־תִֽהְיֶיןָ לְאִישׁ שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים הָֽאַחַת אֲהוּבָה וְהָֽאַחַת שְׂנוּאָה וְיָֽלְדוּ־לוֹ בָנִים הָֽאֲהוּבָה וְהַשְּׂנוּאָה וְהָיָה הַבֵּן הַבְּכֹר לַשְּׂנִיאָֽה: טז וְהָיָה בְּיוֹם הַנְחִילוֹ אֶת־בָּנָיו אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִֽהְיֶה לוֹ לֹא יוּכַל לְבַכֵּר אֶת־בֶּן־הָאֲהוּבָה עַל־פְּנֵי בֶן־הַשְּׂנוּאָה הַבְּכֹֽר: יז כִּי אֶת־הַבְּכֹר בֶּן־הַשְּׂנוּאָה יַכִּיר לָתֶת לוֹ פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵא לוֹ כִּי־הוּא רֵאשִׁית אֹנוֹ לוֹ מִשְׁפַּט הַבְּכֹרָֽה: ס יח כִּי־יִֽהְיֶה לְאִישׁ בֵּן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה אֵינֶנּוּ שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקוֹל אָבִיו וּבְקוֹל אִמּוֹ וְיִסְּרוּ אֹתוֹ וְלֹא יִשְׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶֽם: יט וְתָפְשׂוּ בוֹ אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ וְאֶל־שַׁעַר מְקֹמֽוֹ: כ וְאָֽמְרוּ אֶל־זִקְנֵי עִירוֹ בְּנֵנוּ זֶה סוֹרֵר וּמֹרֶה אֵינֶנּוּ שֹׁמֵעַ בְּקֹלֵנוּ זוֹלֵל וְסֹבֵֽא: כא וּרְגָמֻהוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ בָֽאֲבָנִים וָמֵת וּבִֽעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָֽאוּ: ס [שני] כב וְכִי־יִֽהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט־מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֵֽץ: כג לֹֽא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּֽי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּֽי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָֹה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַֽחֲלָֽה: ס

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Books

Covenant & Conversation Commentary – The Late Chief Rabbi Johnanath Sacks’ last published commentary on the Torah.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon – One of the most used Hebrew and English Lexicons among serious Bible students.

Pentateuch & Haftorahs, By. Dr. J.H. Hertz – The Late Chief Rabbi of the British Empire was renowned for his writings and teaches. By many he is considered a must read. In the Preface Dr. Hertz calls this “a People’s Commentary”.

The Holy Scriptures
According to the Masoretic Text
The Jewish Publication Society translation
[1917] – Public Domain